What Can Franchisors Say about Financial Performance?

Pursuant to an article appearing in the Luxora Leader reports a Roast Plant franchisee is suing its franchisor based asserting it was given false figures and projections.  According to the article:

Roasting Plant founder and CEO Mike Caswell sent [franchisee] Shehadi a spreadsheet showing all of the then-existing Roasting Plant locations doing about $1.1 million in yearly revenue, with strong profits, the lawsuit says. Another spreadsheet projected that an Ann Arbor coffee shop, once open, would do $1.4 million in revenue with above-average profits. https://luxoraleader.com/franchisee-sues-roasting-plant-coffee-for-9-5m-alleging-fraud/577560/

Item 19 of the franchise disclosure document [FDD] gives franchisors the opportunity to provide prospective franchisees with information about the financial performance of the franchise brand.  Once a financial performance representative is made in item 19 of the FDD, the franchisor can then discuss the representation disclosed and substantiation for the representation.

Financial performance representation means any representation, including any oral, written, or visual representation, to a prospective franchisee, including a representation in the general media, that states, expressly or by implication, a specific level or range of actual or potential sales, income, gross profits, or net profits. The term includes a chart, table, or mathematical calculation that shows possible results based on a combination of variables. 16 CFR Parts 436 and 437

Without an item 19 financial performance representation in the FDD, the Franchisor may not discuss the financial performance of the franchise brand.  Conversely, inclusion of a financial performance representation does not have to operate as a franchisor’s a free pass to speak everything financial, profits, revenue, and performance.  Franchisor must confine discussions and information sharing to the information disclosed in the FDD and supporting data to substantiate the item 19 financial performance presentation.

Item 19 financial performance representations is commonly based on the existing outlet location.  Project or future financial performance representations are not so common.  The requirement for project or future financial performance representations are quite robust.  Project or future financial performance representations must be, among other things, prepared in accordance with the AICPA Audit and Accounting Guide by qualified personnel using appropriate accounting principles.

The disclosure of an existing outlet location’s financial performance representation does give the franchisor a free pass to discuss future projected financial performance.  In order for the franchisor to discuss projected future financial performance representation, the franchisor must include a projected financial performance representation in the FDD.  A project or future financial performance representation can not be boot strapped on to a historic financial performance representation.

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